Use the dash for an abrupt change in thought, or for inserting elements
that are not normally within the grammatical structure. Avoid using them
as commas or colons, however!
He shrieked—he was someone who never showed any fear—and ran for
Answers to the Questions on "Lingkuan Gorge" (Both Classes)
1. What is his change of mood or outlook; describe the change and
Who could have imagined a little boy who looked like he should be
cuddled in his mother’s arms could have changed the outlook of the
narrator of the story? (One could use this as a rhetorical question to
begin your answer; this doesn't answer the question, however.)
His mood changes from irritated and pessimistic and frustrated to
positive, confident, and encouraged. The change comes from his entering a
warm cave, meeting a little boy who has a very responsible and positive
attitude towards his job, and so feeling obligated as an adult to act at
least as well as this child. He was probably feeling ashamed at himself
for wanting to take a day off, especially when he sees the parent’s
behaviour as well.
At the beginning, the narrator felt irritated and negative and
impatient and angry and miserable and fed up (because he was cold, hungry
and fell and hurt his hands)
The change is caused by his entry to the cave and his conversation with
the boy. In the cave, it is warm and comfortable and relaxed, so he is
able to concentrate on other things. At first, he treats the boy as a kid,
but the boy responds in a mature way. The man notices that he is “pretty
sharp”. Also, when the boy mentions “not leaving his post” the
narrator realizes that is exactly what he is doing himself. Thus, the man
feels ashamed and says “A job is waiting for me” and so he goes on.
2. Give a one sentence theme statement for the story.
A theme is a truth about life in general; a moral is a kind of teaching
of principle. ("Lingkuan Gorge" also has a moral)
3. The character of the little boy.
He is a mature, responsible, smart, proud, understanding, obedient,
brave, honourable, loyal, and unselfish. He is able to be this way because
he feels close to his parents who, he knows, can see him from their posts.
We also noted:
The story is very strong in its use of setting, gesture, and
humour and its description of the relationship between adults and